In Cameroon, native Terminalia spp. represent an important component of the forestry industry, but limited information is available regarding the fungal pathogens that affect them. The Botryosphaeriaceae are endophytic fungi and latent pathogens that can result in wood stain, cankers, die-back and death of trees, particularly when trees are under stress. The aim of this study was, therefore, to identify and characterize the Botryosphaeriaceae occurring as endophytes of Terminalia spp. in Cameroon, as part of a larger project to identify potential pathogens of these trees in the country. Samples were collected from three Terminalia spp. in the Central, Southern and Eastern Regions and the resultant Botryosphaeriaceae were identified using morphology and DNA sequence comparisons for the ITS and tef 1-α gene regions. Furthermore, inoculation trials were conducted to consider the relative pathogenicity of the isolates collected. The majority of isolates (88%) represented species of Lasiodiplodia, including L. pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae and L. parva. The remaining isolates were identified as Endomelanconiopsis endophytica. Pathogenicity trials on young T. mantaly and T. catappa trees revealed that L. pseudotheobromae was the most pathogenic species followed by L. theobromae.