One reason for the persistence and protracted nature of conflict on the African continent is the phenomenon of war economies. These have transformed the nature of war itself where the object is not at neutralizing an enemy but to
institutionalize violence at a profitable level of intensity. Transforming war economies into peace economies constitute a unique challenge to post-conflict reconstruction strategies on the African continent. This article explores these
challenges and critically examines whether the African Union (AU) and New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) post-conflict reconstruction strategies meets these challenges. The article concludes with some recommendations
to policy-makers in order to ensure that this transition from war to peace economies does indeed take place in order to ensure a more peaceful continent.