Granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system of dogs and less commonly of cats. It is likely that GME is an autoimmune disease, although infectious and neoplastic causes have also been suggested. Three morphological forms of the disease have been described : an ocular form, a focal form and a diffuse (or disseminated) form. Cerebral spinal fluid may present pleocytosis of monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as mild protein elevation. Brain imaging may reveal multifocal lesions predominantly in the white matter of the central nervous system with the focal form of the disease, while brain parenchyma normally has a heterogeneous appearance in the diffuse form. GME is normally treated with corticosteroid immunosuppressive therapy with additional radiation therapy recommended for the focal form of the disease. Cyclosporine has also been successfully used to treat GME in some dogs. Prognosis of GME is generally poor, with survival times ranging from weeks to years.
REFERENCES: 1. Adamo, FP & O’Brien, RT 2004, ‘Use of cyclosporine to treat granulomatous meningoencephalitis in three dogs’ Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, no. 225, vol. 8, pp. 1211-1216. [http://0-avmajournals.avma.org] 2. Platt, SR & Olby, NJ (eds) 2004, ‘BSAVA manual of canine and feline neurology’ 3rd ed., British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, p. 168. 3. Morgan, RV 2007, ‘Handbook of small animal practice’ 5th ed., Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, p. 245.
Metadata assigned by Dr. M. van Schoor, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Companion Animal Clinical Studies