DESCRIPTION: Myoglobinuria is the presence of myoglobin in urine and causes the urine to turn dark red to brown or even black in severe cases. Myoglobinuria is a sign of severe muscle degeneration. Myoglobin carries oxygen in muscle and is not normally present in urine. Myoglobin can readily move through the glomerular capillary walls. Detectable myoglobinuria may occur if myoglobin concentration reaches 15 to 20mg/dl but this concentration will not cause a colour change. Myoglobinuria may be caused by trauma of muscles, toxic substances or ischemia of muscles. The common causes of myoglobinuria include crush injuries, heat stroke, severe muscular exertion, snake bites, electric shock and idiopathic disorders. A nasal cannula is the best way to supplement oxygen in conscious patients. Oxygen supplementation is an important management tool for critical conditions such as cardiopulmonary disease, sepsis, SIRS and head trauma. Nasal cannulas are easy to place, require minimal equipment and are well tolerated by patients. A nasal cannula allows for prolonged oxygen delivery and permits access to the patient for examination and treatment purposes without losing the oxygen-rich environment.
REFERENCES: 1. Blood, DC, Studdert, VP & Gay, CC 2007, ‘Saunders comprehensive veterinary dictionary’, 3rd ed., Saunders Elsevier, New York, pp. 1200. 2. Manning, AM 2002, ‘Oxygen therapy and toxicity’, Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1005-1020. [http://0-www.mdconsult.com]. 3. Osborne, CA & Finco, DR (eds) 1995, ‘Canine and feline nephrology and urology’, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 161-162.
4. Silverstein, DC & Hopper, K (eds) 2009, ‘Small animal critical care medicine’, Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, pp. 78-80.
Metadata assigned by Dr. M. van Schoor, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Companion Animal Clinical Studies