Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae represent some of the most important fungal pathogens of woody plants. Although these fungi have been relatively well studied on economically important crops, hardly anything is known regarding their taxonomy or ecology on native or non-commercial tree species. The aim of this study was to compare the diversity and distribution of the Botryosphaeriaceae on Terminalia catappa, a tropical tree of Asian origin planted as an ornamental in Cameroon, Madagascar and South Africa. A total of 83 trees were sampled, yielding 79 Botryosphaeriaceae isolates. Isolates were initially grouped based on morphology of cultures and conidia. Representatives of the different morphological groups were then further characterised using sequence data for the ITS, tef 1-alpha, rpb2, BOTF15 and beta-tubulin gene regions. Five species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were identified, including Neofusicoccum parvum, N. batangarum sp. nov., Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae and L. mahajangana sp. nov. Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae and L. theobromae, were the most commonly isolated species (62%), and were found at all the sites. Neofusicoccum parvum and N. batangarum were found in South Africa and Cameroon, respectively, whereas L. mahajangana was found only in Madagascar. Greenhouse inoculation trials performed on young T. catappa trees showed variation among isolates tested, with L. pseudotheobromae being the most pathogenic. The Botryosphaeriaceae infecting T. catappa appear to be dominated by generalist species that also occur on various other hosts in tropical and sub-tropical climates.