Toyi-Toyi-ing to freedom : the endgame in the ANC's armed struggle, 1989-1990

Show simple item record Simpson, Thula 2010-08-20T08:59:52Z 2010-08-20T08:59:52Z 2009-06
dc.description.abstract This article focuses on the twelve-month period between August 1989 and August 1990 which proved to be the final year of the African National Congress’s (ANC) armed struggle against the South African government. This period is interesting because it dramatised the central paradox that existed throughout the ANC’s armed struggle, namely its material weakness that was belied by its immense symbolic strength. In August 1989, the ANC’s proposals for negotiations were accepted by African leaders, while in South Africa, F.W. de Klerk acceded to the South African state presidency. These events considerably improved the prospects of a negotiated settlement. However, by August 1990, the ANC and the South African government had still not begun formal negotiations, and the bone of contention between them was the ANC’s continued commitment to violence. This highlights the second key theme: namely, the immense symbolic significance carried by the question of violence in the conflict. At stake was the credibility of the ANC’s claims to be South Africa’s national liberation movement. The ANC needed to perpetuate the notion of MK as an effective fighting force in order to sustain its claim that negotiations had been achieved through its actions, and that it was entering into talks on its own terms. Meanwhile for the government, these considerations operated in reverse: it was anxious to counter the notion that the ANC had fought its way to the negotiating table. This article will discuss how the two sides jostled over this question in the period leading to the ANC’s unilateral suspension of its armed struggle in August 1990. en_US
dc.identifier.citation Simpson, T 2009, 'Toyi-Toyi-ing to freedom : The endgame in the ANC's armed struggle, 1989-1990', Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 507-521. [] en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0305-7070
dc.identifier.other 10.1080/03057070902920015
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Taylor & Francis en_US
dc.rights © 2009 The Editorial Board of the Journal of Southern African Studies. This is an electronic version of an article published in Journal of Southern African Studies, 1989-1990, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 1-31, 2009. Journal of Southern African Studies is available online at: en_US
dc.subject Toyi-Toyi en_US
dc.subject African National Congress (ANC) en
dc.subject National Party en
dc.subject Umkhonto we Sizwe en
dc.subject Armed struggle en
dc.subject.lcsh Political violence -- South Africa en
dc.subject.lcsh Negotiation en
dc.subject.lcsh Political parties -- South Africa en
dc.title Toyi-Toyi-ing to freedom : the endgame in the ANC's armed struggle, 1989-1990 en_US
dc.type Postprint Article en_US

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