"After their independence, African countries undertook to establish sub-regional organisations in order to join their efforts towards improving the living standard of their populations. Primarily vested with economic objectives, these sub-regional organisations, aware that economic development cannot be attained withouth peace, security and political stability, are more and more involved with political issues, especially since the 'democratic wind' of the early 1990s. It is therefore interesting to study how sub-regional integration as an external factor affects democracy domestically, that is to contemplate to what extent this sub-regional integration is contributing to the strengthening of democracy in Africa, and to research ways of enhancing this contribution. ... The study is structured into four main chapters. The introductory chapter contains the research design. The second chapter is devoted to an overview of sub-regional integration. It examines the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), but without losing sight of other groupings. The third chapter analyses the way the ECOWAS is dealing with the issue of democratic consolidation. It is interested in the question of whether the ECOWAS has an express policy and whether it has set standards as regards democratic consolidation in West Africa and, if so, how effective this policy and these standards have been so far. The fourth chapter is devoted to summary, conclusion and recommendations." -- Introduction.
Thesis (LLM (Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa)) -- University of Pretoria, 2005.
We present an active Q-enhanced pseudo-combline resonator integrated in 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS. It is shown that the resonator Q0 can be enhanced, controllably, from 15 to 1578 at 78.8 GHz through application of a SiGe HBT-based ...
Rinaldi, Leonardo; Unerman, Jeffrey; De Villiers, Charl Johannes(Emerald, 2018)
PURPOSE : The purpose of this paper is to identify key challenges, opportunities, strengths and weaknesses experienced by the integrated reporting (IR) idea since the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC)’s ...
Niemann-Struweg, Ilse; Grobler, Anske F.(College of Economic and Management Sciences, University of South Africa, 2007-12)
After almost 15 years of existence, integrated communication (IC) is still
difficult to implement in order to integrate all the marketing and
communication efforts of an enterprise. It is contended that the first