Glycolipids are presented to T cells by human group 1 CD1 proteins, but are not used as subunit vaccines yet. Experimental immunizations with pure mycobacterial glucose monomycolate (GMM) and keyhole
limpet haemocyanin (KLH) in cattle, a species which, unlike mice, expresses group 1 CD1, showed that GMM was equally efficient as KLH in generating T cell responses in blood, but not in the draining lymph node. Also, KLH induced strong antibody responses whereas GMM did not. These data suggest that nonoverlapping
T cell populations are targeted and demonstrate the potential of glycolipids as a special class of subunit vaccine candidates.