Psalm 72 propounds illuminating theological perspectives on leadership. The central figure in the psalm is the king. Throughout the Ancient Near East the king played a distinctive role, not only in contemporary politics, but also in religious life. Despite several differences from the other nations, kingship in Israel was rooted in the worldview of the ancient East. Yahweh, like other gods, commissioned the king for his tasks. The wise king in Israel, who alludes in Psalm 72 to the figure of Solomon, is obliged to rule with justice in order to maintain peace and prosperity in society. The psalm is a prayer to God on behalf of the king. A litany of wishes emphasises the close relationship between Yahweh and the king. Wise leadership of the king will lead to the well-being of society. Before this theological principle is applied to modern leadership, one has to discover aspects regarding the composition of the text, its date of origin and the text's growth. Similarities between the psalm and a Neo-Assyrian coronation hymn (7th BC) also reveal striking evidence.