It prefers calcareous soil, sand, loam, shale and white quartzite and can become abundant on degraded grassveld, hillsides, rocky ridges, dry river beds, in low lying areas and along roadsides. Invader on overgrazed veld.
Botanical description: General: A weed, growing as a bushy shrub, ±1 m high, with pale papery stems
Leaves: The leaves are flat, linear-oblong, alternating
Flowers: Golden yellow to orange, solitary flower heads.
Unknown hepatoxin, but also pneumotoxic in sheep.
Hepatotoxic syndrome without photosensitization.
Liver and respiratory system.
• Sheep problem
• Peracute - die during night - acute liver failure
• Do not eat
• Ruminal stasis, bloat • Lag behind and refuse to walk
• Dyspnoea, cyanosis
• Difficult expiration.
• Alveoli burst and air escapes into interstitial tissue, migrate to bronchi and trachea until under the skin where it causes swelling and crepitation - “lugdikkop”.
• Generalized oedema and ascites
• Emphysema• Icterus• Pronounced degeneration, especially liver and kidneys.
• Pale grey-yellow liver.
• Diffuse hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis
• Lung oedema and emphysema.
• Interstitial pneumonia.
Colour photos. Final web-ready size: JPEG. Photo 1: 7.54 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 2: 94.2 kb, 96 ppi; Photo 3: 36.2 kb, 96 ppi; Photo 4: 25.8 kb, 72 ppi. Original TIFF file housed at the Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Pretoria.