The role of territoriality was investigated by studying 25 impala rams at a reserve in the Waterberg region of South Africa (23°45'S, 28°23'E). Mean territorial tenure was 67.25 days (range 23–99), with a mean territory size of 21.0 ± 11.27 ha, compared with home ranges of 34.1 ± 9.03 ha for territorial rams and 58.8 ± 33.35 ha for bachelor rams, using the fixed kernel method. Territory boundaries remained constant, whilst the area surrounding important features such as water holes, appears to be neutral in terms of territoriality. The rut, as evidenced from peaks in chasing and roaring, lasted for 2 months from 10 April to 10 June 2001, with intensified behaviour including matings observed from 16 May to 4 June 2001. Territorial rams chase and roar more than bachelors. Flehmen and display behaviours are performed by all rams, whilst fights and other reproductive behaviours are generally rare. Bachelors browse more than territorial rams. Only bachelors spar and allogroom, and orally groom themselves more than territorial rams.