Kisspeptin (KP) is now well recognized as a potent stimulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and thereby a major regulator of the neuroendocrine-reproductive axis. KP signals via KISS1R, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that activates the G proteins Gαq/11. Modulation of the interaction of KP with KISS1R is therefore a potential new therapeutic target for stimulating (in infertility) or inhibiting (in hormone-dependent diseases) the reproductive hormone cascade. Major efforts are underway to target KISS1R in the treatment of sex steroid hormone-dependent disorders and to stimulate endogenous hormonal responses along the neuroendocrine axis as part of in vitro fertilization protocols. The development of analogs modulating KISS1R signaling will be aided by an understanding of the intracellular pathways and dynamics of KISS1R signaling under normal and pathological conditions. This review focuses on KISS1R recruitment of intracellular signaling (Gαq/11- and β-arrestin-dependent) pathways that mediate GnRH secretion and the respective roles of rapid desensitization, internalization, and recycling of resensitized receptors in maintaining an active population of KISS1R at the cell surface to facilitate prolonged KP signaling. Additionally, this review summarizes and discusses the major findings of an array of studies examining the desensitization of KP signaling in man, domestic and laboratory animals. This discussion highlights the major effects of ligand efficacy and concentration and the physiological, developmental, and metabolic status of the organism on KP signaling. Finally, the potential for the utilization of KP and analogs in stimulating and inhibiting the reproductive hormone cascade as an alternative to targeting the downstream GnRH receptor is discussed.