The clinical pathology and pathophysiology of heartwater : a review
Guthrie, Alan John; Bertschinger, H.J. (Hendrik Jan); Heartwater : Past, Present and Future. Workshop (1986 : Kruger National Park, South Africa); Van Amstel, S.R.; Reyers, Fred; Oberem, P.T.; Killeen, Valerie M.; Matthee, O.; Bigalke, R.D.
This paper reviews the available literature on the clinical pathology and pathophysiology of heartwater and makes comparisons with unpublished results obtained from a recent study in experimentally-induced heartwater in calves. The pathophysiological changes seem to center on an increased capillary permeability the result of which is reflected most noticeably in cardiac and lung function. There is a marked drop in cardiac output in severe cases and some workers have recorded a severe drop in diastolic blood pressure in the advanced stage of the disease. Changes in lung function are variable, depending on the stage of the disease, and may change from a respiratory alkalosis in the early febrile stage to a respiratory acidosis in more advanced cases. The basic cause for the increased capillary permeability is not known. The main clinical pathological changes measured include a progressive anaemia, fluctuations in total and differential white cell count, of which an eosinopenia and a lymphocytosis are the most marked, increases in total bilirubin which coincide with darkening of plasma colour, and a drop in total serum proteins mostly shown in the albumin levels.
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