BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a well-established health hazard. To determine the effectiveness
of existing smoke-free policies and adoption of smoke-free rules in South Africa, we assessed exposure to SHS from
several sources among non-smoking adults during 2010.
METHODS: Data were analyzed for 3,094 adults aged ≥16 years who participated in the 2010 South African Social
Attitudes Survey. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were used to assess presence of smoke-free rules
among all South Africans, and prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure at work, at home, and at hospitality
venues among non-smokers.
RESULTS: Overall, 70.6% of all South African adults had 100% smoke-free rules in their private cars, 62.5% in their
homes, while 63.9% worked in places with 100% smoke-free policies. Overall, 55.9% of all non-smokers reported
exposure to SHS from at least one source (i.e., in the home, workplace or at a hospitality venue). By specific source
of exposure, 18.4% reported being exposed to SHS at work, 25.2% at home, 33.4% in a restaurant, and 32.7% at a
bar. Presence of work bans on indoor smoking conferred lower likelihood of SHS exposure at work among
non-smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09-0.60). Similarly, smoke-free home rules decreased the
odds of being exposed to SHS at home among non-smokers (aOR =0.16; 95% CI: 0.09-0.30).
CONCLUSION: Over half of South African adults reported SHS exposure in the home or at public places such as the
workplace and at hospitality venues. This underscores the need for comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit
smoking in all public indoor areas without exemptions.
BACKGROUND: There are limited studies that have explored smoking predictors among Ugandan adolescents over time. This study investigated factors influencing smoking among Ugandan adolescents between 2007 and 2011.
Odland, Jon Oyvind; Kharkova, Olga A.; Krettek, Alexandra; Grjibovski, Andrej M.; Nieboer, Evert(BioMed Central, 2016-03-08)
BACKGROUND : Smoking during pregnancy leads to adverse maternal and birth outcomes. However, the prevalence
of smoking among women in Russia has increased from < 5 % in the 1980s to > 20 % in the 2000s. We conducted