In the late layers of the book of Jeremiah and the Pentateuch, covenant was under discussion. Jeremiah 31:31-34 reacted directlyto the post-exilic Pentateuch and its theory of covenant andrevelation. For the authors of the Pentateuch God's revelation hadcome to an end with Moses' death. Entirely different was the theoryof revelation in the post-exilic circles of the prophetic literature.They were of the opinion that God's revelation went on until theirdays (continued into their times). This hermeneutical difference hada deep impact on their understanding of covenant. This paperreconstructs the complex discussions between the authors of thePentateuch and the book of Jeremiah about the essence of covenant.