Since the mid 1990’s, the wireless communications industry has witnessed explosive growth. The worldwide cellular and personal communication subscriber base surpassed 600 million users by late 2001, and the number of individual subscribers surpassed 2 billion at the end of 2006 [1, 2]. In order to attract and accommodate these subscribers, modern communication systems, like the Third Generation (3G) and Fourth Generation (4G) cellular networks, will have to provide attractive new features such as increased data throughput rates, greater system capacity, and better speech quality. These modern communication systems promise to have advantages such as wireless access in ways that have never been possible before, providing, amongst others services such as live television (TV) broadcasting to Mobile Stations (MS)s, multi-megabit Internet access, communication using Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), unparalleled network capacity, seamless accessibility and many more. With specific, but not exclusive reference to the cellular environment, there are numerous ways to increase the data throughput rate and system capacity. From an economical perspective, it would be more efficient to add equipment to the Base Station (BS) rather than the MSs. To achieve these improvements the motivation to utilise transmit diversity’s capabilities have been identified as a key research issue in this study. Alamouti  proposed a transmit diversity technique using two transmit antennas and one receive antenna, providing the same diversity order than using one transmit antenna and two receive antennas. Since Alamouti’s publication in 1998, many papers in the field of Space-Time (ST) coding have been published. Current research in the field of ST coding consists of finding methods to extend the number of transmit antennas to more than four, while still achieving full rate, as well as full diversity which is the main motivation for this study. This study proposes a novel idea of breaching the limitations with ST coding theory by combining ST coding with Spread Spectrum (SS) modulation techniques in order to extend the number of transmit antennas to more than four and still achieve full rate as well as full diversity. An advantage of the proposed scheme, called Direct Sequence Space-Time Spreading (DSSTS) has over current Space-Time Spreading (STS) techniques is that it uses 50% less spreading codes. A performance evaluation platform for the DSSTS scheme was developed to simulate the performance of the scheme in a realistic mobile communication environment. A mobile communication channel that has the ability to simulate time-varying multipath fading was developed and used to evaluate the performance of the DSSTS scheme. From the simulation results obtained, it is evident that Walsh sequences that exhibit particularly good cross-correlation characteristics, cannot overcome the effect of the antenna self-noise in order to exploit the diversity gain by adding extra antennas, i.e. diversity extension. The research also showed that an optimal trade-off exists between antenna diversity and antenna created self-noise. Performance results of the DSSTS scheme in slow and fast fading channels for a different number of transmit antennas are also presented in this study. With the capacity analysis of the DSSTS scheme, it was shown that the addition of extra transmit antennas to the system indeed increased the system capacity. A further addition to this study is the investigation into the assumption that the channel should be quasi-static over the frame length of the ST code. A Space Sequence Transmit Diversity (SSTD) technique is consequently proposed that allows the transmission of the Alamouti symbols during one time interval instead of two. This relieves the ST code from the assumption that the channel should be quasi-static, allowing it to be used in a more realistic multi-user environment. A performance evaluation platform for the SSTD scheme was developed and used to obtain simulation results in a multipath fading channel. It was also shown that the proposed SSTD scheme is successful in combating the effects of multipath fading for small Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) user loads. However, as a rule of thumb, the square root of the spreading sequence length divided by two depicts the user load at which the SSTD scheme was not capable of overcoming the combined effects of Multi-User Interference (MUI) and multipath fading.
Dissertation (MEng)--University of Pretoria, 2008.