In this study the nature and extent of the sexual assault and rape of male sentenced offenders and awaiting-trial detainees in Pretoria Local Correctional Centre were investigated. Prison gangs, overcrowding of correctional centres, the involvement of correctional officials and the sexual orientation of the potential victim were highlighted as risk factors in the sexual assault and rape of male offenders and awaiting-trial detainees. As this study focused on both the victim and the offender of male-on-male sexual assault and rape, both victimological and criminological theories were used as a theoretical basis. Creswell’s dominant-less-dominant model of combination was used in this study, with the dominant model being the qualitative methodology, and the less-dominant model the quantitative methodology. Non-purposive sampling was used, as the researcher could not identify the victims and/or perpetrators of male-on-male sexual assault and rape individually. In order to obtain in-depth information on the research participants’ experiences of sexual activities and rape in the correctional centre, face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with one hundred research participants. After the analysis and interpretation of the data, it became evident that male-on-male sexual assault and rape, as well as consensual sexual activities, do occur in this correctional centre. Research participants highlighted four types of sexual engagements in this correctional centre, namely the need for emotional sex, survival sex, compliant sex and forced sexual acts. The reasons offered for the occurrence of rape in this correctional centre include that an agreement had not been reached between inmates and because of that the rape will take place, corruption by correctional officials, the involvement of prison gangs and the use of deception by the perpetrators. Six research participants revealed that they had been the victims of rape. All the victims were raped within days or weeks after their arrival at the correctional centre. Five of the victims did not receive medical treatment after the rape, and none of the victims received counselling or therapy after the rape. Five of the research participants reported that they had sexually assaulted and/or raped other inmates. Four of the perpetrators were awaiting trial for an aggressive offence (armed robbery) and one for a sexual offence (rape). The perpetrators forced their victims to engage in oral sex, inter-femoral sex and anal sex. The aims of the study were reached and recommendations for further research were also made. Emanating from the feedback of the participants as well as the literature review, the researcher developed an Offender Sexual Assault Protocol. The Department of Correctional Services can use this protocol to reduce and manage sexual assault and rape in male correctional facilities.