A plant ecological study was conducted in the grasslands of Transkei to develop a better understanding of the distribution, structure and composition of the plant communities found in the area. The agricultural sector in developed and rapidly developing areas of southern Africa is faced with problems like veld deterioration and the loss of natural areas that effectively contribute to the depopulation of rural areas. The Grassland Biome Project was initiated to address the problem of increased destruction of natural resources because the most suitable area for agriculture falls within the grasslands of South Africa. The aim of the Grassland Biome Project is to integrate knowledge, comprehension and expertise, which will enable scientists to forecast the results of the available options of grassland management programs. Vegetation of Transkei forms part of this project. The study area (Transkei) borders on the kingdom of Lesotho in the north and Indian Ocean in the southeast. In the northeast it borders on KwaZulu-Natal and in the northwest, and in the west on the eastern Cape Province. Relevés were compiled in 379 random sample plots and four major plant communities, namely: Bush and Grassland vegetation of drier areas, Wet and Disturbed grassland, Grassland of Undulating Areas, and Moist Grasslands on Flat Plains, were found. The vegetation was classified by means of TWINSPAN and Braun-Blanquet procedures were found. The vegetation was classified by means of TWINSPAN and Braun-Blanquet procedures.