The purpose of this paper is to add new evidence to studies already done on factors associated with surplus producers and on the food price dilemma in traditional agriculture. Survey data of rural households in the FSP areas in KaNgwane was used to determine the factors which discriminate between surplus and deficit producers and to establish a market participation profile to illustrate the extent of the food price dilemma. In the second half of the paper these results are compared with the results from similar studies. Through comparing the results it was possible to obtain a better picture as to what factors determine surplus producers in traditional agriculture. By analysing the market participation profile in the various areas it is also possible to determine the extent of the food price dilemma in Southern Africa. The results obtained from the survey data in KaNgwane were in line with those from the other studies.
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