The importance of equine piroplasmosis control in endemic countries has increased in recent years
and plays an important role to maintain the international market open to the horse industry. The purpose
of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis (Babesia equi or Theileria
equi and Babesia caballi) in Brazil - a country where the disease occurs endemically - in different
climatic conditions, and to evaluate the results of a strategy for tick control in order to decrease infection
rates. Blood samples were taken from 720 horses on 28 farms from different regions and subjected
for complement fixation testing. The strategy was based on the control of the tick population
by spraying the horses with acaricides, treating positive horses and preventing cattle and horses from
grazing together. A significant association was found in the prevalence of antibody titres in tropical
and subtropical areas. A significantly lower prevalence rate occurred on those farms where measures
to control tick population were established. Farms in endemic countries may significantly reduce
the prevalence of equine piroplasmosis by establishing measures to control the tick population and
treating chronic carrier horses. Additional measures for controlling ticks in tropical areas are also
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