A field study (February 2000 to August 2001) was conducted on communal and commercial farms in the Eastern Cape and North-West Provinces of South Africa to detect the levels of tick resistance to commonly used acaricides. The larvae obtained from engorged females of the one-host tick Boophilus decoloratus, the two-host tick Rhipicepalus evertsi evertsi and the three-host ticks Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus were tested against various concentrations of amitraz , chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin using the Shaw Larval Immersion Test method. Ticks from the communal farms showed higher levels of resistance to cypermethrin and some resistance to chlorfenvinphos whilst no resistance was detected against amitraz. However, ticks from commercial farms were equally resistant to amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. The B. decoloratus populations tested were considerably more resistant to all the acaricides tested than the R. evertsi evertsi, A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus populations. This supports the hypothesis that single-host ticks develop resistance faster than multi-host ticks. This trend was recorded on most of the farms where single- and multi-host ticks co-existed. It was concluded that the use of acaricides at high frequencies and high concentrations was one of the main causes of tick resistance in the study areas. Possible factors which caused the resistance problems are discussed and acaricide management strategies recommended.
The articles have been scanned in colour with a HP Scanjet 5590; 600dpi.
Adobe Acrobat v.9 was used to OCR the text and also for the merging and conversion to the final presentation PDF-format.