The article shows that it is anachronistic to speak of either Christians or Jews in the biblical period. In the New Testament both words are used pejoratively by outsiders. However, it became appropriate to speak of Jews when referring to the period of Rabbinic Judaism onwards, and of Christians since the christological debates of the fourth century C E. Israel was the in-group name during the Second Temple period. Outsiders, like the Romans, called the entire land Judea and all its inhabitants Judeans. Members of the house of Israel called all outsiders non-Israel or the nations. The article concludes with a discussion of the ancient point of view of labeling persons.
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