Science parks are often established to drive regional economic growth, especially in countries with emerging economies. However, mixed findings on the innovation outcomes of science park firms are
reported in the literature. This study systematically identifies innovation outputs used in the science park literature and argues: (a) that firms generate different outcomes at various stages of the innovation process; and (b) that their use is a possible explanation for the mixed findings reported in the field. This paper combines a knowledge production function approach, modeling knowledge transfers and spillover flowing to new technology-based firms (NTBFs) in the emerging South African economy with innovation outcomes, which are measured by using a multi-dimensional construct. The estimations produce non-consistent and
non-systematic results across different dimensions of innovation outcomes, implying that results are outcome indicator specific and that it makes sense to distinguish multiple indicators of innovation outcomes referring to different phases in a firm’s innovation process.