The Botryosphaeriaceae is a species-rich family that includes pathogens of a wide variety of trees, including Eucalyptus species. Symptoms typical of infection by the Botryosphaeriaceae have recently been observed in Eucalyptus plantations in South China. The aim of this study was to identify the Botryosphaeriaceae associated with these symptoms. Isolates were collected from branch cankers and senescent twigs of different Eucalyptus spp. All isolates resembling Botryosphaeriaceae were separated into groups based on conidial morphology. Initial identifications were made using PCR-RFLP fingerprinting, by digesting the ITS region of the rDNA operon with the restriction enzymes CfoI and KspI. Furthermore, to distinguish isolates in the Neofusicoccum parvum/N. ribis complex, a locus (BotF15) previously shown to define these species, was amplified and restricted with CfoI. Selected isolates were then identified using comparisons of DNA sequence data for the ITS rDNA and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene regions. Based on anamorph morphology and DNA sequence comparisons, five species were identified: Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae, Neofusicoccum parvum, N. ribis sensu lato and one undescribed taxon, for which the name Fusicoccum fabicercianum sp. nov. is provided. Isolates of all species gave rise to lesions on the stems of an E. grandis clone in a glasshouse inoculation trial and on the stems of five Eucalyptus genotypes inoculated in the field, where L. pseudotheobromae and L. theobromae were most pathogenic. The five Eucalyptus genotypes differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species suggesting that breeding and selection offers opportunity for disease avoidance in the future.