The genus Chrysoporthe includes important pathogens of plantation-grown Eucalyptus spp. and has been reported from several tree genera in the order Myrtales in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. During disease surveys in South China, fruiting structures typical of Chrysoporthe spp. were observed on cankers on Eucalyptus spp. and Syzygium cumini trees. The aim of this study was to confirm the identity of the Chrysoporthe cubensis infecting the Eucalyptus spp. and S. cumini and to test the pathogenicity of the fungus. Following glasshouse trials to select virulent isolates , field inoculations were undertaken to screen different commercial Eucalyptus genotypes for their susceptibility to the fungus. Isolates were characterized based on their morphology and DNA sequence data for the β-tubulin and internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA. Results showed that the putative pathogen represented the Asian form of C. cubensis, which occurred on numerous different Eucalyptus spp. and hybrid clones as well as S. cumini. Field inoculations showed that all six of the Eucalyptus genotypes tested are susceptible to infection by C. cubensis. Significant differences were observed between them, providing prospects to select disease-tolerant planting stock in the future.