We focus in this study on sets of inter-organizational relationships (IORs) by applying a configurational approach that includes both the diversity and the intensity of knowledge transfer IORs. We use a latent class cluster analysis to empirically explore the kinds of IORs configurations. We then use antecedents derived from the IOR literature to explain firm membership in those configurations. Our tests allow us to identify four configurations ranging from isolated innovators to innovating firms embedded in diverse and deep sets of IORs. We show that internal knowledge use by firms, and the
types of innovative activities in which they engage, are strong predictors of firm membership in different configurations.