Ureteral JJ stents are invaluable in endo-urological practice, as they provide free drainage from the kidney to the bladder and
are effective in relieving and preventing upper urinary tract obstruction. However, complications occur in up to one-third of patients, which most commonly include stent encrusation, stent migration, stent fracture and secondary stone formation. Other complications include dysuria, frequency, vesico-ureteric reflux and ureteral fistula. For stents that have lost their
radio-opaque coating or when radiography is contraindicated, ultrasonography is the diagnostic modality of choice.