Psalm 129 is analysed as a poetic composition, as well as an ideological document. It was found that the social codes of honour and shame play an important role in what and how the psalm was supposed to communicate. It is described as an
attempt to strengthen the cohesion and loyalty of an in-group of people living near or in Jerusalem. This group considers itself to be part of the people of Israel. Its members expect Yahweh to intervene on their behalf and to restore their (and his own) honour by shaming their enemies.